ITS 2014 Hamburg | Speakers and Papers
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Wolfgang Hurtienne, Managing Director, Hamburg Port Authority, Germany
Some Solutions to the Rising Costs of Wreck Removal
David Pockett, Consultant, London Offshore Consultants Group, Brazil
This paper will look at various ways in which wreck removal costs might be reduced. Contrasting examples of casualty management adopted by authorities will be provided, and a critical look at the relationships between P&I Clubs and wreck removal contractors will be taken. Tendering processes, including funding issues, will be addressed, forms of contract, rates and negotiations will be examined and, in particular, the misuse of SCOPIC, the delays in decision-making and their effect on wreck removal costs. The adequacy of training and experience of contractors, claims handlers and advisers will be questioned. Finally, the paper will ask if there are sufficient forums between relevant parties which might assist in providing a specific focus on the needs of the industry, improved relationships and a better understanding of wreck removal operations and requirements.
Current Challenges in the Salvage Industry and the Response of Marine Salvors
Leendert Muller, President, International Salvage Union, UK and Managing Director, Multraship Towage & Salvage, The Netherlands
Salvors provide a vital service to the shipping industry, but face a number of commercial, international and practical challenges. This paper will set out the current issues from the perspective of the International Salvage Union, the trade association representing the world's marine salvors. Key issues are the lack of international agreement on Places of Refuge; the continued decline in the use of the most common salvage contract, Lloyd's Open Form; innovation and investment in the industry's response capability; preparation for increased need for salvage response in polar regions as ship movements increase, particularly on northern sea routes, and the increase in large wreck removal projects and the implications on the salvage industry. The paper will give the salvage industry's response to these key matters, including its work with other stakeholders such as ship owners, insurers (property and liability) and coastal states. Salvors provide a vital service to the shipping industry but face a number of commercial, international and practical challenges. This paper will set out the current issues from the perspective of the International Salvage Union (ISU), the trade association representing the world's marine salvors. Key issues are the lack of international agreement on places of refuge; the continued decline in the use of the most common salvage contract, Lloyd's Open Form; innovation and investment in the industry's response capability and the increase in large wreck removal projects and the implications for the salvage industry.
Aspects of the Criminalisation of Seafarers in Hong Kong
Capt Alan Loynd, Managing Director, Branscombe Marine Consultants Ltd, Hong Kong, China
The paper will address recent cases in Hong Kong which have resulted in criminal charges against the seafarers involved and will highlight the difficulties mariners face in criminal courts which lack marine expertise. Among the topics covered will be the trial and imprisonment of the master of the OSV Neftegaz-67, a fatal ferry collision where masters with only local qualifications were judged by the finest maritime and legal brains, and the recent trend of arresting helmsmen. There are some very important points which emerged from the Neftegaz case which can only now be discussed freely. They will be of interest to all persons involved in criminal cases, and most particularly to operators of OSVs which transit coastal or harbour waters without a pilot. In the recent ferry collision case, which has not yet gone to trial, we will highlight the findings of a special commission of enquiry which was set up to reassure the public that 'something was being done', and detail the plight of masters with only basic local qualifications (the same qualifications as tug and workboat masters) who are held to account. We will question the ability of the police to understand what really happens at sea or the roles of the players involved, as highlighted by the recent arrest of the helmsmen of two coastal vessels involved in a collision in Hong Kong waters - mirroring the actions of Italian police in the Costa Concordia case. Offering solutions to the problems of criminalisation is more problematic, but we will be able to suggest some guidelines for people who find themselves involved in an accident which may result in criminal charges being laid.
Improving Towing Safety in Supply Vessels and Anchor-Handling Tugs
Robert Allan, Executive Chairman, Robert Allan Ltd, Canada
Incidents such as the loss of Bourbon Dolphin illustrate all too clearly that the business of towing, and particularly handling large rig anchors at sea, can be risky at best and perilous if things go sideways in a hurry during critical manoeuvres. The formal reviews of such incidents focus on a forensic analysis of what may have happened to cause the loss of the AHTS or OSV, and some recommendations may arise. Seldom, however, do the investigators look at the fundamental aspects of the operation involved during the incident and ask "why do they do it that way?" This paper asks that very question, using the Bourbon Dolphin incident as background, and proposes a better way of designing safer anchor-handling tugs for these challenging operations.
Service Life Valuation of High-Performance Towing Gear
Kris Volpenhein, Director of Engineering, Samson Rope Technologies, USA
Capt Steven J Huttman, Vice President Marine Operations, G & H Towing Company, USA
Building from information presented at ITS 2008 and Tugnology '09, this paper will review the field-proven results of abrasion and fatigue-resistant synthetic towlines that have been in service since the time of the previous paper. This paper will demonstrate the increased value to end-users through improved durability and service life expectations achieved as a result of proper line management from pre-installation to retirement. Samson's data collection and analysis since the previous conferences have created a wealth of knowledge surrounding in-field experience that is well-documented and demonstrates the impact on total cost-of-ownership for tug operators in all regions of the world. These claims are further supported through a detailed case study performed in conjunction with G & H Towing.
Value-based Equipment Selection
Jonas Nyberg, Product & Development Manager, Caterpillar Marine Solution Center, Singapore
Traditionally, equipment selection is weighted toward fulfilling the contractual requirements agreed to in the shipbuilding specification. Bollard pull and sea-trial speed are examples of this. For today's common vessel types, we find that this design criterion often defines the entire equipment selection and, at the same time, represents only a fraction of the operational time for the vessel. A harbour tug is a good example - it will spend, typically, only a small percentage of its operating time in bollard pull conditions. Similarly, a cargo vessel is not likely to be crossing the Atlantic at sea-trial speed. Ultimately, what this does is base equipment selection on a condition where the vessel spends only a fraction of its operational time. Is this condition-based equipment selection the best choice, or are there other conditions of considerable importance to look at for alternative equipment set up?
Fuel Economy: Hybrid Solutions and Beyond
Dirk Degroote, Product Manager - Tugs, Damen Shipyards, The Netherlands
Robert van Koperen, Development Team Leader, Damen Shipyards, The Netherlands
In recent years, fuel prices have increased drastically and fuel consumption has become a hot topic. Various concepts have addressed this issue, and now a hybrid solution has turned from concept into reality, as the Damen ASD Tug 2810 Hybrid E3 - the first 'off-the-shelf' hybrid tug in the world - prepares for its official introduction to the market at ITS 2014 in Hamburg. During the development, building and testing of this vessel we have learned a lot, but this is just the start of things to come. Damen expects this initiative to revolutionise the tug world. Electric drives offer much more than just optimising the working point of the diesel engine generating the power. Batteries take on another role in the tugs, with propulsion added to their operation. Slow-speed operations can be carried out more accurately when not dependent on the idle speed of diesel engines. This, in turn, could lead to safer operations, and new insights into slow-speed manoeuvring can be gained from measurements during operations. Another advantage is that CPP settings could be further optimised when taking a closer look at these operations. Power consumption can be visualised for the master, making him aware of consumption levels. And last, but not least, will a different use of power generators such as batteries significantly affect service and maintenance costs? All of these factors, combined with increased automation and analysing possibilities, will open up a new era in the improvement potential for power and fuel economy. In this paper we will elaborate on the lessons learned and the possibilities discovered when developing the ASD Tug 2810 Hybrid E3, which could lead us into a cleaner and more cost-effective future.
Using Detailed Vessel Operating Data to Identify Energy-Saving Strategies
Elizabeth Reynolds Boyd, President, Nautican Research & Development Ltd, Canada
Donald MacPherson, Technical Director, HydroComp Inc, USA
Reducing fuel consumption and improving energy efficiency on vessels is not a one-size-fits-all proposition. In order to maximize benefits and produce acceptable financial returns from any energy savings technology, it is first necessary to understand in sufficient detail how the vessel operates and consumes energy. It is clear that solutions that work well for a harbour tug with very low average engine loads will not produce the same value for ocean-towing tugs that operate predominantly where diesel engines are most efficient. This paper uses published data and vessel operating data to create operating profiles for tugs in different operational scenarios and examines how this data can be used to quantify energy efficiency and identify fuel and energy savings solutions that fit the specific needs of the vessel. Finally, the paper explains how that data can be used to develop financial models to aid in design decisions.
SCOPIC and the SCR - Where Now?
John Noble, General Manager (UK), Donjon Marine Co Inc, USA and Managing Director, Noble Marine Services, UK
Capt Keith Hart, Managing Director, Hart Marine Consultants Ltd, UK
The SCOPIC (Special Compensation P&I Club) clause developed from the Global Response Network, first proposed in the early/mid-1990s. The negotiations that took place in 1998 and 1999, which resulted in the 1999 SCOPIC clause becoming accepted and incorporated, are now part of salvage history. However, the fundamental effect the SCOPIC clause had, and still has, on casualty response is perhaps an unforeseen consequence of the clause. The original title for the Shipowners' Casualty Representative (SCR) was soon amended to the Special Casualty Representative to afford a more neutral impression. How has the role changed, and is the doom and gloom suggested at the recent (2013) SCR day based on reality? Now that SCOPIC has entered its teens, the time is probably right to take a closer look at how, and if, the clause has reached or exceeded early expectations. Many involved in all aspects of salvage will be aware that SCOPIC exists, but some of the younger generation will have little appreciation of why. A brief history of its background will form part of this paper. There are differing views on how successful SCOPIC has been. Research for the paper will explore (through the International Group of P&I Clubs) how the P&I Clubs view SCOPIC and, with anticipated assistance from the International Salvage Union (ISU), the salvage industry stance on its performance will be examined. This section of the paper will try to draw conclusions on how SCOPIC has performed thus far, and if there is a future for it in the current salvage and wreck removal fields. Given there are 46 SCRs on the list, and not all have been employed as SCRs during Lloyd's Open Form (LOF) salvage operations, the way the SCR system has been developed will be examined. A look at how the system currently works, its strengths and weaknesses, will enable the delegates to develop an appreciation of the role of the SCR.
Lloyd's Open Form in 2014
Simon Tatham, Partner, TugAdvise, UK
LOF has been the bedrock of the salvage industry, but its popularity has waned in the face of fierce competition between contractors and as underwriters seek to reduce the costs of salvage claims. Lloyd's has responded by reinvigorating its panel of arbitrators, fixing a cap on costs for all but the larger cases, publishing awards and streamlining the system to ensure prompt delivery of awards. A new revision of LOF is also under discussion. This paper looks at these developments and explores whether LOF is providing the solutions required by salvors and the shipping industry alike.
Ice-Going Shallow Draft OSV
Marc van der Zwaluw, General Manager, Offshore Ship Designers BV, The Netherlands
Jonathan Townley, Commercial Manager, Silverburn Shipping (IOM) Ltd, UK
Offshore activities are moving into more exposed areas where OSVs have to operate in extreme climates. Most existing vessels operating in frozen conditions have limited operational performance in ice and are depending on ice-breaking vessels during the winter period. OSD has developed a shallow draft ice-going OSV specially designed to operate in one-year ice conditions. In this paper, we will comment on the development of our design and sometimes contradictory requirements for this type of highly-specialised vessel. At the time of this presentation, the vessel in question will have been sailing for 18 months, including two full winter seasons, enabling us to evaluate how well our design choices have performed in the real world.
EDDY Tug: From Concept to Reality
Baldo Dielen, Partner, EDDY Tug, Brazil
Walter van Gruijthuijsen, General Director, EDDY Tug BV, The Netherlands
The EDDY Tug concept was received with enthusiasm during its launch at ITS 2012 in Barcelona, especially by those having operational tug experience, as well as pilots, naval architects, commercial and operational people who saw the advances made by the EDDY tug in ship-assist and escorting performance. Each professional, from a personal perspective, sees particular advantages, whether it be the simplicity of operations, safety, improved efficiency and performance, reduced cost, or environmental aspects. Despite the fact that exclusively proven technology is used, and that multiple scale models were extensively tested over the past five years, it remained difficult for an operator to take a leap of faith into the future. The developers therefore teamed up with Holland Shipyards for the construction of the first full-scale EDDY tug. After further market analysis, it was decided to construct a 30m, 65-tonne bollard pull, hybrid escort EDDY tug, fitted with Schottel SRP3000 thrusters. The first steel was cut in October 2013, with delivery scheduled for May 2014. The characteristic EDDY 30-65 features will be discussed in detail, as well as its construction, operating principles and future potential.
Tug and Tow - Identifying and Controlling Risk
Britt Pickering, Claims Director, The Shipowners' Protection Limited, UK
The term 'towage' covers a multitude of operations including harbour towage, ocean towage of rigs and offshore structures, river towage and salvage. The risks inherent in such operations are many and varied and are often disproportionate to the value of the tug itself. As well as risks associated with the practical operation of a tug, it is also important to consider and understand the contractual risks associated with this sector. Less obvious perhaps, but equally important to understand, analyse and where possible mitigate. Historically, the towage and salvage industry has dealt with the apportionment of liability via well-understood standard form contracts which allow contract certainty, insurance cover certainty and the ability to assess risk. These contracts are largely based on knock-for-knock provisions where each party assumes responsibility and indemnifies the other for liabilities relating to their own property and personnel and those of their subcontractors, regardless of negligence. However, it is apparent that the fine balance between respective allocation of liabilities and the application of specific indemnities is ever-more frequently being disrupted. Against a backdrop of claims inflation it is vital to understand what is driving the erosion of the standard form, and ensure that risks are identified and insured for.
Cord-Reinforced Flexible Link Rotational Coupling Technology Offers a Solution for Conflicting Design Goals
Joachim Reihle, Director R&D, SGF GmbH & Co KG, Germany
Johann Loew, Team Leader Product Development Non-Automotive, SGF GmbH & Co KG, Germany
To transmit torque in industrial drive systems, a compromise between a soft attachment for good noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) behaviour, package, weight, and a rigid attachment for a low level of energy loss is necessary. The presented research has culminated in a new technology in heavy-duty rotational power transmission coupling solutions, comprised of a composite elastomeric rubber material reinforced with directional cording. The use of composite flexible couplings offers development engineers the possibility of reducing power loss and weight while improving the package, and also facilitates easy maintenance.
Emergency and Advanced Tug Handling Simulation
Dimitri van Heel, Sr Project Manager, Teamleader Nautical Operations, MARIN (Maritime Research Institute Netherlands), The Netherlands
Capt Grant Livingstone, Pilot, Jacobsen Pilot Service Inc, USA
The international towing industry is in the midst of a training crisis. As International Tug & OSV has documented over the past five years, tragic (avoidable) towing accidents have continued nearly unabated. There are many factors that have contributed to this state of affairs. Over time, these factors have led to a serious dichotomy in training. It is our opinion that (industry-wide) tug masters are not provided with the same comprehensive high level of advanced and emergency simulator training that is currently considered standard for ship masters and pilots. There are notable exceptions that are unfortunately not the international standard. What happens then when the ship master and pilot on the largest, most technologically-advanced vessel in the world (who possess the highest level of advanced and emergency training possible) have ASD, ABD, VSD, VBD etc assist tugs tethered to those vessels, but the tug master has not received the same high level of training? In many cases, training is woefully short of that which the pilot and master expect to receive. Innovative simulator training is one platform that (potentially) provides an effective path toward significant improvement in comprehensive emergency and advanced training. Nothing can replace the value of hands-on training in the wheelhouse of an actual working tugboat. However, with the onset of tremendous liability and loss in accidents, most towing professionals are neither provided with, nor desire, a real-world opportunity to train in emergency manoeuvring. The risk is too great for both towing professional and organisation. We cannot trip and capsize tugboats to train captains how to avoid or mitigate tripping and capsizing. This paper will delve in to how and why this dichotomy in training between tug master and pilot/ship master came to be. The paper will address the challenges faced on the software and engineering side of simulation to provide 'real world' experience. In conclusion, the paper will lay out specific examples of comprehensive emergency and advanced manoeuvres to encourage further development of case-specific examples for simulation - emergency tug handling (ETH) and advanced tug handling (ATH) examples/cases in order to provide tug masters with the same comprehensive training received by pilots and ship masters.
A Small Vessel Guide to Ballast Water Management
Chris Todd, Sales Director, Hyde Marine Inc, USA
The paper will focus on the application of the IMO Ballast Water Convention to smaller vessels that occasionally transit between countries or through international waters. Transiting near-coastal waters, or ballasting offshore at a rig location, then deballasting to take on technical water, is likely to bring this convention into force for many vessels that are otherwise unaware. Even transits of harbour support vessels to shipyards for overhaul may place the vessels at risk for non-compliance. Examination of regulations and relevant case studies of vessels operating in the Gulf of Mexico and North Sea will demonstrate the potential risks that this regulation presents, as well as potential avenues that will ensure compliance without impacting operation. Additionally, a Ballast Water Management System (BWMS) comprises of both separation and disinfection stages (based on UV light, electrolysis, on-site hypochlorite generation, ozone, oxygen depletion, and plasma generation). With such a diverse choice of available disinfection processes, owners must navigate a complex landscape. The paper will focus on the availability and implementation of a BWMS onboard OSVs, liftboats in salvage service, and anchor-handling/rig-towing vessels. The merits and risks of each system will be discussed in order to provide information on the relative impact on the vessel's operation, as well as the selection and installation of an appropriate system.
New Regulations for Towing and Anchor-Handling Vessels: The Future is Now
Gijsbert de-Jong, Marine Marketing & Sales Director, Bureau Veritas Marine & Offshore, France
At ITS 2010 Vancouver, Bureau Veritas (BV) presented the first draft of the Safety Guidelines for Design, Construction & Operation of Tugs, which was developed in co-operation with Lloyd's Register of Shipping (LR) and the American Bureau of Shipping (ABS) under the umbrella of the SafeTug Joint Industry Project (JIP). Direct involvement of major stakeholders in the towing industry has proven to be vital to the successful realisation of the project. Following a period of industry feedback and further technical development, the draft guidelines have been revised and extended by BV in order to arrive at a definitive document. Key items which have been further developed include towing stability, towing equipment, escort performance simulation and the operational interaction between the tug and the assisted ship. BV is now in the process of implementing the guidelines into the classification process for tugs. In line with the recent technological and regulatory developments with regard to anchor-handling, BV has also redeveloped the classification rules for anchor-handling vessels, primarily focusing on intact stability during anchor-handling, and a holistic approach towards the assessment of anchor-handling equipment in a similar way as has been applied to tugs. The rules are intended to improve operational safety and reliability by providing detailed guidance for taking into account the effect of the wire tension on the stability of anchor-handling tugs and the deck equipment. Due to the comprehensive set-up, the rules support and encourage the installation of reliable on-board decision support systems for the crew. With the introduction of the new regulatory framework, BV is setting future-proof standards for tugs and anchor-handling vessels with regard to safety and reliability, taking into account innovative design solutions proposed by the industry.
Development of a 46m, 100-Tonne BP Line-Haul Tug
Jonathan Parrott, Senior Engineer, Jensen Naval Architects and Marine Engineers, USA
In 2012, Jensen Naval Architects and Marine Engineers undertook a new 46m long-haul tug exploratory design for the international market. To attract the broadest customer base without significant modifications for any single customer, the basic design needed to incorporate feature and capability flexibility. This required rethinking the traditional design process. In the US market, tug operators generally hire their preferred naval architect to design new vessels to satisfy specific performance requirements. Development leads to an optimised vessel for one customer. Other operators subsequently want a tug design just like the existing design with a few 'minor' modifications, but have unrealistic expectations as to the time and expense required to redesign. Change requests typically range from the type of propulsion system, to adding dynamic positioning, to more working deck space. In some cases, a completely new design would have better served the customer's needs. If capability flexibility is built into an original design, redesign efforts can be minimised. Adding design flexibility adds complexity to the design process. Each task that includes a capability range instead of one specific target requires more design work and careful contingency planning. However, that extra work is significantly less than redesigning an existing vessel for capabilities it was never intended to perform. Due to the added design cost and the US market's desire for unique customer-driven designs, this flexible design process is rarely an option. It requires an engineering company willing to front the initial design cost with the expectation of future returns. This paper discusses innovation in the long-haul tug design process, as well as a brief history on the development of ASD tugs for long-haul operations along the Pacific Northwest coast of the USA and Alaska.
Fire-Fighting Tugboats - Liquified Natural Gas and the Tug and Salvage Industry
Thomas Guldner, President, Marine Firefighting Inc, USA
The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry has required that tugboats escorting their LNG ships in and out of port be capable not only of providing escort services, but also of providing fire-fighting assistance throughout the ships' entire stay in port. This has required vast outlays of capital to build new fleets of tugs with powerful fire-fighting capabilities. The duties and knowledge of the crews of these escort vessels must be updated to meet some of the new challenges of the LNG industry. Just what are your new tugboats and their crews expected to do with this new equipment - equipment that is capable of throwing a fire-fighting stream of 1,200m3/hr of water a distance of at least 120m? Your crews will need new training to meet the challenges of working safely with these powerful new tools. Even if your vessels do not work directly in the marine transport of LNG, you and your crews may be working directly with LNG in the future, as LNG will be fuelling vessels of all kinds.
An Interview with Mike Allen
Capt Nicholas Sloane, Director EMEA, Sloane Marine Ltd, South Africa
Optimising the Total Cost of Ownership by Customised Maintenance Concepts
David Segbers, Manager Sales Marine & Offshore, MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Germany
Patrick Stöckle, Senior Manager RAMS LCC Analysis, MTU Friedrichshafen GmbH, Germany
Taking into account that each and every application features its own vessel-specific operational profile with varying load factors, the corresponding rate of wear of each engine is also unique on a case-by-case basis. MTU meets this challenge by customised maintenance concepts that have been developed using a new time-between-overhaul (TBO) calculation method by MTU's extensive systematic analysis of field data. This paper presents the latest development in this approach and its positive effects on the total cost of ownership. An example of a typical tug will illustrate the improvement.
Deeper Insights into Sea-keeping Behaviour of Tugs Using Enhanced CFD Methods
Ralf Rocholl, Application Manager, Voith Turbo GmbH & Co. KG, Germany
Extensive CFD calculations and measurements of a Voith Water Tractor (VWT) in waves were performed and for this purpose, the VWT that was already examined for the SafeTug project was used. Additional measurements were carried out specifically during regular waves, because this enables a distinct comparison with the CFD results. It has been demonstrated that the CFD calculations and the measuring values for the chosen wave conditions are highly consistent. The developed design tool for establishing optimum ship lines enables the fast automatic generation of new ship geometries. Optimisations, for example the reduction of roll motions, can be implemented much faster with this tool. The calculations show that the fin size of a VWT and the design of the bilge geometry have a significant impact on the roll behaviour.
Design of an LNG-Powered OSV: A Case Study
Stefan Wolczko, Business Development Manager, Guido Perla & Associates Inc, USA
Liquefied natural gas (LNG) fuel for ships is a technology with a track record on a small number of vessels, which has generated significant interest within the maritime community as a possible answer to compliance with increasingly stringent emissions regulations, as well as a fuel solution that could prove to be cost-effective in the future. While LNG is not the sustainable, greenhouse-gas-free energy source that mobile power plants require for a long-term stable future, there is a strong likelihood that this technology - a relatively abundant, more environmentally-friendly solution over oil-based fuel - will become a significant source of energy for the maritime industry. There are a number of factors to consider on the path to procurement and operation of an LNG-fuelled ship, both during the nascent stages of LNG bunkering infrastructure and, once that infrastructure is hypothetically well established, in multiple regions. This paper aims to consolidate and dissect the key issues at play in the drive to produce an LNG-fuelled offshore supply vessel (OSV) in the present or near future.
Paradigm Shifts in 'Tugnology'
Marinus Jansen, Technical Innovations Manager, Rotortug BV, The Netherlands
The Exxon Valdez grounding in 1989 sparked the development of a completely new field in 'tugnology' (tug technology) called 'escorting'. Since then, tugnology has progressed in two distinct ways: 1. Escort tugs were developed with the best available technology of that era, optimising hull forms and the understanding of how hydrodynamic forces acted on the escort tug's hull; 2. Harbour tugs displayed a trend of ever-increasing bollard pull, with engine and propulsion technology facilitating this development. At the same time, every operator yearned for a multi-purpose tugboat able to perform both services, preferably equally capable. It is time that we bring these two distinct developments together in how we operate and design our tugboats. This requires a different approach, where we go back to basics, meeting our stakeholders' demand for maximum control over a vessel at any speed, whether in port or near protected areas.